Panama Canal - Canal Interoceanique de Panama - Stock CertificateInv# GS1201 Stock
Years before the Panama Canal became a reality men dreamed of building a canal across Central America. In the early 1500's, the explorer, Vasco Nunez de Balboa, saw the possibility of a canal connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
The French adventurer, Lucien Napoleon Bonaparte Wyse, secured a franchise from Colombia in 1878, granting him the right to build a canal across the province of Panama. He, in turn, sold the franchise to a French company, the "Compagnie Universelle Du Canal Interoceanique De Panama". The actual digging began in 1882. The original plans called for a canal that would run at sea level, but they soon decided to construct a canal similar to the present one. The canal was planned carefully, and some of the plans were carefully executed. Tropical diseases struck down many of the workers. The main reason for the French failure was dishonest politicians who stole large sums of money from the company. In 1889, the Compagnie Universelle went bankrupt.
In May, 1904, the United States took over the French franchise, and the canal was completed in 1914.
The Panama Canal (Spanish: Canal de Panamá) is an artificial 82 km (51 mi) waterway in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean. The canal cuts across the Isthmus of Panama and is a conduit for maritime trade. One of the largest and most difficult engineering projects ever undertaken, the Panama Canal shortcut greatly reduces the time for ships to travel between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, enabling them to avoid the lengthy, hazardous Cape Horn route around the southernmost tip of South America via the Drake Passage or Strait of Magellan and the even less popular route through the Arctic Archipelago and the Bering Strait.
Canal locks at each end lift ships up to Gatun Lake, an artificial lake created to reduce the amount of excavation work required for the canal, 26 m (85 ft) above sea level, and then lower the ships at the other end. The original locks are 32.5 m (110 ft) wide. A third, wider lane of locks was constructed between September 2007 and May 2016. The expanded canal began commercial operation on June 26, 2016. The new locks allow transit of larger, neo-Panamax ships, capable of handling more cargo.
Colombia, France, and later the United States controlled the territory surrounding the canal during construction. France began work on the canal in 1881, but stopped because of engineering problems and a high worker mortality rate. The United States took over the project in 1904 and opened the canal on August 15, 1914. The US continued to control the canal and surrounding Panama Canal Zone until the 1977 Torrijos–Carter Treaties provided for handover to Panama. After a period of joint American–Panamanian control, the canal was taken over by the Panamanian government in 1999. It is now managed and operated by the government-owned Panama Canal Authority.
Annual traffic has risen from about 1,000 ships in 1914, when the canal opened, to 14,702 vessels in 2008, for a total of 333.7 million Panama Canal/Universal Measurement System (PC/UMS) tons. By 2012, more than 815,000 vessels had passed through the canal. It takes 11.38 hours to pass through the Panama Canal. The American Society of Civil Engineers has ranked the Panama Canal one of the seven wonders of the modern world.
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