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1914 dated Bukhara Railway Co. - Uncanceled Russian Bond

Inv# FB6662   Bond
1914 dated Bukhara Railway Co. - Uncanceled Russian Bond
Country: Russia
Years: 1914

187.5 Rubles or 500 Francs 4 1/2% Bond. Most coupons remain.

The history of Bukhara stretches back millennia. In medieval times, Bukhara served as the capital of the Samanid Empire, Khanate of Bukhara and was the birthplace of Imam Bukhari.

At the beginning of the 11th century, Bukhara became part of the Turkic state of the Karakhanids. The rulers of the Karakhanids built many buildings in Bukhara: the Kalyan minaret, the Magoki Attori mosque, palaces and parks.

Bukhara lies west of Samarkand and was previously a focal point of learning eminent all through the Islamic world. It is the old neighborhood of the incomparable Sheik Naqshbandi. He was a focal figure in the advancement of the mysterious Sufi way to deal with theory, religion and Islam.

It is now the capital of Bukhara Region (viloyat) of Uzbekistan. Located on the Silk Road, the city has long been a center of trade, scholarship, culture, and religion. During the golden age of the Samanids, Bukhara became a major intellectual center of the Islamic world. The historic center of Bukhara, which contains numerous mosques and madrassas, has been listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.

The Samanid Empire seized Bukhara, the capital of Greater Khorasan, in AD 903. Genghis Khan besieged Bukhara for 15 days in 1220. As an important trading centre, Bukhara was home to a community of medieval Indian merchants from the city of Multan (modern-day Pakistan) who were noted to own land in the city.

Bukhara was the last capital of the Emirate of Bukhara and was besieged by the Red Army during the Russian Civil War. During the Bukhara operation of 1920, Red Army troops under the command of Bolshevik general Mikhail Frunze attacked the city of Bukhara. On 31 August 1920, the Emir Alim Khan fled to Dushanbe in Eastern Bukhara (later he escaped from Dushanbe to Kabul in Afghanistan). On 2 September 1920, after four days of fighting, the emir's citadel (the Ark) was destroyed, the red flag was raised from the top of Kalyan Minaret. On 14 September 1920, the All-Bukharan Revolutionary Committee was set up, headed by A. Mukhitdinov. The government—the Council of People's Nazirs (see nāẓir)—was presided over by Faizullah Khojaev.

The Bukharan People's Soviet Republic existed from 1920 to 1925 when the city was integrated into the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic. Fitzroy Maclean, then a young diplomat in the British Embassy in Moscow, made a surreptitious visit to Bokhara in 1938, sight-seeing and sleeping in parks. In his memoir Eastern Approaches, he judged it an "enchanted city" with buildings that rivalled "the finest architecture of the Italian Renaissance". In the latter half of the 20th century, the war in Afghanistan and civil war in Tajikistan brought Dari- and Tajik-speaking refugees into Bukhara and Samarkand. After integrating themselves into the local Tajik population, these cities face a movement for annexation into Tajikistan with which the cities have no common border.

Rail transport in Russia runs on one of the biggest railway networks in the world. Russian railways are the third longest by length and third by volume of freight hauled, after the railways of the United States and China. In overall density of operations (freight ton-kilometers + passenger-kilometers)/length of track, Russia is second only to China. Rail transport in Russia has been described as one of the economic wonders of the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries.

JSC Russian Railways has a near-monopoly on long-distance train travel in Russia, with a 98.6% market share in 2017. Independent long-distance carriers include Grand Service Express TC, Tverskoy Express, TransClassService, Sakhalin Passenger Company, Kuzbass Suburb, and Yakutian Railway.

Russia is larger than both the United States and China in terms of total land area, therefore its rail density (rail tracking/country area) is lower compared to those two countries. Since Russia's population density is also much lower than that of China and the United States, the Russian railways carry freight and passengers over very long distances, often through vast, nearly empty spaces. Coal and coke make up almost one-third of the freight traffic and have average hauls of around 1,500 kilometers, while ferrous metals make up another 10 percent of freight traffic and travel an average of over 1,900 kilometers. Railroads are often key to getting supplies shipped to remote parts of the country as many people do not have access to other reliable means of shipping.

Like most railways, rail transport in Russia carries both freight and passengers. It is one of the most freight-dominant railways in the world, behind only Canada, the United States, and Estonia in the ratio of freight ton-kilometers to passenger-kilometers. However, per head of population intercity passenger travel is far greater than the United States (which has the lowest long-distance passenger train usages in the developed world).

Russia's railways are divided into seventeen regional railways, from the October Railway serving the St. Petersburg region to the Far Eastern Railway serving Vladivostok, with the free-standing Kaliningrad and Sakhalin Railways on either end. The regional railways were closely coordinated by the Ministry of the Means of Communication until 2003, and the Joint Stock Company Russian Railways since then – including the pooling and redistribution of revenues. This has been crucial to two long-standing policies of cross-subsidization: to passenger operations from freight revenues, and to coal shipments from other freight.

The Russian railways were a collection of mostly privately owned and operated companies during most of the 19th century, though many had been constructed with heavy government involvement and financing. The tsarist government began mobilizing and nationalizing the rail system as World War I approached, and the new communist government finished the nationalization process. With the dissolution of the USSR in 1991, the Russian Federation was left with three-fifths of the railway track of the Union as well as nine-tenths of the highway mileage – though only two-fifths of the port capacity.

In the 21st century, substantial changes in the Russian railways have been discussed and implemented in the context of two government reform documents: Decree No. 384 of 18 May 2001 of the Government of the Russian Federation, "A Program for Structural Reform of Railway Transport", and Order No. 877 of 17 June 2008 of the Government of the Russian Federation, "The Strategy for Railway Development in the Russian Federation to 2030". The former focused on restructuring the railways from government-owned monopoly to private competitive sector; the latter focused on ambitious plans for equipment modernization and network expansion.

Timeline of railway implementation

1837 – the Tsarskoye Selo Railway (27 km);

1843 – Inkerman Railway (about one km);

1848 – the Warsaw-Vienna Railway (800 km);

1851 – Nikolaevskaya railway (645 km);

1854 — Connecting Line (4,73 km), first trans-line connector to form the future network;

1855 – The Balaklava Railway (about 23 km);

1861 – the Riga-Dinaburg railway (218 km);

1862 – the Petersburg-Warsaw Railway (1116 km);

1862 – the Moscow-Nizhny Novgorod railway (437 km);

1868 – Moscow-Kursk railway (543 km);

1870 – Yaroslavl Railway;

1878 – the Ural Mining and Railroads (by 1880–715 km);

1884 – Catherine (Krivorog (g)) railway) (by 1884–523 km);

1890 – Samara-Zlatoust railway (1888 – Samara-Ufa, by 1893 about 1500 km);

1898 – the Perm-Kotlas railway;

1900 – The Ussuri railway (964 km);

1900 – the Moscow-Savyolovo line;

1903 – the Sino-Eastern Railway (Manchurian, Chinese Changchun, Harbin);

1905 – Trans-Baikal Railway; The Circum-Baikal Railway; Petersburg-Vologda railway;

1906 – Theological Railway; The Tashkent railway;

1908 – Little Ring of the Moscow Railway;

1915 – the Altai Railway;

1916 – the Amur Railway; The Volga-Bugulma Railway; West-Ural railway; The Moscow-Kazan railway; North-Eastern Ural Railway; The Trans-Siberian Railway (historical part);

1926 – the Achinsk-Minusinsk railway;

1930 – the Turkestan-Siberian Railway;

1936 – 1937 – Norilsk Railway;

1940 – Kanash–Cheboksary;

1944 – The Big Ring of the Moscow Railway;

1969 – the line of Verbilki–Dubna;

1978 – Rostov-Krasnodar–Tuapse; Yurovsky–Anapa;

2003 – the Baikal–Amur Mainline;

2013 – Adler–Rosa Farm;

2016 – Moscow Central Circle (based on Little Ring of the Moscow Railway);

2017 – The railway line bypassing Ukraine;

2017 – the Amur–Yakutsk railway;

2019 – Railway bridge to the Crimea;

2023 – High-speed mainline Moscow–Kazan (draft);

2023 – Northern Latitudinal Railway (project);

2030 – Magadan Highway (Lower Bestyah–Moma–Magadan) (project).

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Condition: Excellent

A bond is a document of title for a loan. Bonds are issued, not only by businesses, but also by national, state or city governments, or other public bodies, or sometimes by individuals. Bonds are a loan to the company or other body. They are normally repayable within a stated period of time. Bonds earn interest at a fixed rate, which must usually be paid by the undertaking regardless of its financial results. A bondholder is a creditor of the undertaking.

Item ordered may not be exact piece shown. All original and authentic.
Price: $45.00